There is a major group of animals which are called bilaterally symmetrical animals due to the very fact of their bilateral body symmetry. The bilateral symmetry refers to an animal’s body’s such a shape that a plane passing through the body divides it into two halves that are mirror images of each other. The bilateral animals can be divided into two major groups named protostomes and deuterostomes referring to the respective events of protostomy and…

The technique of column chromatography can be defined in two ways in accordance with the field of science in which it is being utilized – Chemistry and Biology. When applied in chemistry, it is used to separate one or sometimes more chemical compounds from a mixture dissolved in an appropriate solvent. Whereas in biology, it most often is employed to separate a biological compound such as nucleic acids or Proteins from a mixture (also dissolved…

Algae (singular alga) constitutes a group of simple non-flowering plants which lack true stems, leaves, roots and vascular bundles. They are mostly aquatic in nature and their typical examples include seaweeds. However, many types of algae exist which are unicellular in nature. Just like other plants, they also contain chlorophyll in their cells. Fungi (singular fungus) is a group of eukaryotic organisms that have been classified as a separate kingdom ‘fungi’ separate from other forms…

Angiosperms Angiosperms are a large group of seed producing flowering plants characterized by the enclosure of the seeds within the female reproductive organ of the flower known as carpel. Typical examples include grasses, herbs, shrubs and most of the trees. Angiosperms constitute the largest and probably the most diverse group within the plant kingdom having approximately 300,000 species worldwide. They also represent about 80 percent of all the green plants present on earth. Gymnosperms Gymnosperms…

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a separation technique for a mixture of non-volatile compounds monitored by their rate of movement on a thin layer of adsorbent coated a plate or sheet. There are different types of sheets used in TLC, of which most common are plastic, glass, and aluminum foil while the most common types of coatings (absorbent materials) used are silica gel, cellulose, and aluminum oxide. The adsorbent layer is termed as a stationary phase…

A chemist is a scientist who studies and does research in chemistry and its various processes. In broader terms, chemists study matter, its properties, their composition, the chemical reactions happening and how those chemical reactions result in new products and so on. To celebrate the necessity of chemistry and its sub-fields and how this field has revolutionized and transformed during the last decades, the top scientist of the field are being presented here along with…