Both Mitochondria and Chloroplast are the essential cells in living organisms that vitally run for them to live. While checking the difference between Mitochondria and Chloroplast, you will see that Mitochondria utilizes oxygen and other nutrients to produce a cell’s energy in terms of ATP. While Chloroplast is the main unit of photosynthesis (a process in which plants utilize sunlight to produce energy-rich organic compounds as a food fuel for cells) in a plant cell.

We excluded this article to provide you a detailed comparison between Mitochondria and Chloroplast, covering all their key similarities & dissimilarities. So, let’s begin with a brief comparison chart!

Comparison Chart

   Mitochondria  Chloroplast
LocationPresent in all aerobic organisms, for example, animals and plants.Only present in green plants, protists like Euglena, and a few green algae
StructureBean-shapedDisc-shaped
ColorcolorlessGreen color
Inner & Outer ChambersMatrix & Cristae, respectivelyStroma & Thylakoids, respectively
Role of OxygenUtilizes oxygenReleases oxygen
PigmentsNo pigments foundChlorophyll, Carotenoids, & Photosynthetic pigments
Energy UtilizationReleases energy in the processStores energy in the process

Mitochondria – Brief Explanation

The key objective of a Mitochondrion (singular) cell is to produce and provide energy to the remaining cell in a eukaryote. They are mostly discovered from where ATPs (Adenosine Triphosphates) are produced. This whole energy generation mechanism is processed by Cellular Respiration, which mainly requires food to continue. Mitochondria may vary in its number, depending on the cell type, as a medium-sized animal cell consists of more than 1000 of them.

Chloroplasts – Brief Explanation

Chloroplasts are always found where photosynthesis takes place in plant cells (photoautotrophic organisms). It operates through its Chlorophyll unit, which catches sunlight (light energy) to combine carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). Using the same light energy, they are then converted to glucose which is further utilized by Mitochondria to generate ATP. Chlorophyll is the only responsible unit in Chloroplast to give it a green color.

Check Out the Similarities and Dissimilarities between Mitochondria and Chloroplast

A chloroplast is just like Mitochondria when it comes to a double-layer member of its cells. Both have several other parts inside their membranes, which we will discuss further. Let’s quickly look into the fundamental similarities between them.

Key Similarities

DNA & RNA

 Both Mitochondria and Chloroplast have important genetic material called DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid).

Double Membrane Organelle

Both structures consist of double-layer membranes, that are inner and outer layers.

Gives Energy

Mitochondria and Chloroplast have a similar role in providing energy to their cells.

Enzymes & Coenzymes

Another feature of both organelles have enzymes and coenzymes in them.

Involves O2 and CO2: Either it’s Mitochondria or Chloroplast, both utilizes oxygen and carbon dioxide in their functioning.

Mobile Cells

Both organelles can move within a living cell.

Key Dissimilarities

Despite being quite similar, there are many differences between Mitochondria and Chloroplast that are mentioned below.

General Information

Mitochondria

They are huge, membrane-bounded organelles present in all types of eukaryotic (having a distinct nucleus) cells. Mitochondria are well-known as “Power House of a Cell.” Their main function is to metabolize energy through the cellular respiration process.

Chloroplast

These organelles are primarily present in green plants and a few algae too. A chloroplast is an active center of photosynthesis, which is quite larger and complex than a Mitochondrion cell.

Cell Shape & Location

Mitochondria

The mitochondrial cells are colorless organelles with a bean-like shape. They are largely present in animal and plant cells, called the aerobic organisms.

Chloroplast

They are naturally green in color and have a disc-like shape in the cell. Chloroplasts are sufficiently present in green plants, protists like Euglena, and a few algae.

Outer and Inner Chambers

Mitochondria

It consists of two main chambers, inner and outer, which are known as cristae and matrix. The inner mitochondrial membrane turns into projections, which are later called Cristae.

Chloroplast

On the other side, Chloroplast also has two chambers, pronounced as stroma and thylakoids. Here the Thylakoids are the flattened sacs.

Functioning

Mitochondria

The main purpose of the mitochondrial cell is to convert glucose to energy, called ATP. It utilizes oxygen, along with glucose to release energy, and later on, bring forth carbon dioxide and water. Mitochondria perform photorespiration, beta-oxidation, and oxidative phosphorylation.

Chloroplast

The basic units in the thylakoid membrane of a Chloroplast are chlorophyll, carotenoids, and photosynthetic pigments. The solar energy is stored in chloroplast, which is further used to release oxygen as well. Moreover, the organelle also consumes water and carbon dioxide to form glucose (sugar). Chloroplasts are the site for photosynthesis and photorespiration.

Final Verdict

After thoroughly reading the differences between Mitochondria and Chloroplast, we realized that both are, one after the other, the central contributing organelles to a living (eukaryotic) cell. They equally function for the growth of a cell.

Note that, Mitochondria are found in almost all eukaryotic cells, while Chloroplasts only display in green plants and some algae to hold the process of photosynthesis in them.

Sana Riaz
Author

Sana has just completed her MPhil in Microbiology. She loves reading books and the latest discoveries in sciences.

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