Mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell. It is an organelle like other organelles including endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes and nucleus. It is found in the cell of eukaryotic organisms.


It is an organelle that are found in most of the eukaryotic cell having cellular processes. It has double membrane,  outer membrane  and inner membrane having in folding that called the cristae.

Basic Facts about Mitochondria

it is found in both plants and animals and also found in all eukaryotic cells

Mitochondrial Structure is double membranous and composed of

  • An outer membrane
  • An inner membrane that’s folding form cristae
  • Matrix

The folding of inner matrix enhance the surface area so that as much as possible cellular processes could performed.

Matrix is fluid part of the mitochondria that contain water and protein.

Mitochondria involved in many processes like heme, synthesis of phospholipids, apaptotic activation and cell death.

It also involved in the cellular respiratory processes that provide energy during this process.

This process is carried out in the presence of oxygen.

This cellular process also known as kreb’s cycle that also called citric acid cycle because cycle starts with citrate also end on it.

During this cycle ATP and NADH+H molecules are formed and so called powerhouse of the cell.

This organelle also involved fusion process that called mitochondrial fusion.

This process is occur in cell’s stress condition. In this process the outer and inner membrane fused together. This network maintain the cell’s health.

Due to this process cell survives in stress condition. This is an interesting concept about it.

It has its own single stranded cDNA that multiply own its own without involving cell division.

It can produce its own protein because it has its own DNA and ribosomes. Due to this activity it is called semi-autonomous organelle.

Four complex Enzymes in the matrix of mitochondria

  1. First is the Combination of NADH-Q-reductase that helps the protons to cross the membrane
  2. Second is the combination of succinate-Q-reductase
  3. Third is the QH2-cytochrome-C-reductase
  4. Fourth is the cytochrome-C-oxidase

These complex enzymes helps in the production of ATP that is used in the oxidative phosphorylation. Enzymes are bio molecules and made of amino acids.

Mitochondria involved in the process of apaptosis (A programmed cell death)

They can change their shape when needed and also die if cell requires less energy

There are different numbers of mitochondria in different organelles e.g.

Liver1600  mitochondria
Kidney1000  mitochondria

Mitochondrial Disease are Alzheimer and Parkinson disease is due to dysfunction in mitochondria and can be inherited from parents to child.


Hifza is a student of bioinformatics. She is a research student and working on cancer.

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