Liver Cancer- Hepatocellular Carcinoma – BioMadam


Human beings are unprotected to the risk of several diseases. A large number of   our population is being target by many diseases. Death rates are increase rapidly that is associated with dangerous diseases. Human beings are suffering from many diseases. To reduce the diseases and death rates efforts are continued. Due to the knowledge of causality of deaths and diseases the awareness of peoples are being continue regarding these factors which causing these diseases and to recommend many ways of treatment. This disease is diagnosed by PCR.

It is going to become possible due to the awareness of causality of deaths and diseases. Cancer is most common know a day’s and it becomes a disaster diseases.

For the sake of better health of humans, the oncologists and researchers need to work together to identifying and examining the causes of liver cancer and employing the better suggestions. The study of factor and dissemination of diseases called epidemiology.

These are some environmental factors, which have genomic damage effect in a human body. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) knows a day is a large burden in worldwide and become the second major cause of cancer- related death. It is caused by Alcoholic used, Smoking and Chronic infection like Hepatitis B and C.

Almost90% of HCC cases develop due to the viral hepatitis in chronic liver, these incidence are increase due to the alcohol abuse and in those patients with fatty liver disease ( non alcoholic ).

Liver cancer is world common disease. This disease occurred due to the HCV or HBV. Most common form of liver cancer is HCC which was also called malignant hepatoma.

Liver Cancer

This is common type of hepatitis in academic region including China, Southeast Asia and sub-Sahara Africa. HCC was fatal, and it had overall 4 to 5 year survival rate of from the presage of clinical diagnosis.

Survival rate is  69% if tumor detected earlier. Late presentation, diagnosis of tumor is lead 80% chances of mortality of HCC patients. Particularly if tumor size is less than 2 cm it could be treated.

Word wide HCC is at rank second amongst all cancer, which lead to death. Due to alcoholic abuse and viral hepatitis up to 90% hepatocellular carcinoma cases developed. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was a major health problem throughout the world .HCV infection is considered the most common etiology of chronic liver disease in Egypt, where the prevalence of antibodies to HCV (anti HCV) approximately l0-fold greater than in the United States and Europe . More than 90% of HCV isolated from Egyptian at least 70% of patients who contract HCV develop chronic hepatitis C with 20–50% of these patients are eventually progressing to cirrhosis and 5–7% developing hepatocellular carcinoma in 10 – 20 years. Seventy percent of acute infections was rapidly established as chronic infections; which could lead to scarring of liver and ultimately to cirrhosis, liver cell failure and hepatocellular carcinoma

It considered deadly tumors and usually late diagnosis when effective treatment is not possible. There are many clinical methods to detect Liver cancer but none of these gave satisfactory results. HCC is forth common leading disease. Natural history and background of HCC is difficult to understand because of variability of tumors.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and the third leading cause of cancer deaths. microRNAs (miRNAs) are evolutionary conserved small non-coding RNA that negatively regulate gene expression and protein translation. Different evidences had shown that they are involved in many biological processes, from development and cell-cycle regulation to apoptosis. miRNAs behave as tumor suppressor or promoter of oncogenesis depending on the cellular function of their targets. Moreover, These are frequently dysregulated in HCC.

miRNAs used as potential therapeutic targets for HCC (Hepatocellular carcinoma) is one of the commonest deadly tumors, and it was usually diagnose at a late stage, when effective treatment was very difficult. Making its discovery before the development of later stage disease was challenging. Hepatocellular carcinoma represents one of the prevalent type’s cancers with the highest proportion in developing countries. There are many clinical and pathological staging systems for detecting Hepatocellular carcinoma, but none of them includes biological parameters as predictors for prognosis.

The various clinical presentations commonly relate to the extent of hepatic reserve at time of diagnosis and so far, there are no studies that conclusively prove that screening hepatocellular carcinoma will reduce the death rate.

The development of genome-wide analysis methods has opened the possibility of identifying multiple changes simultaneously in genetic or epigenetic alterations as well as in gene expression affecting the genome of cancer cells. The main issue raised by this work is to determine which alternatives can construed as reliable biomarkers for providing information about the carcinogenesis process rather using screening methods for detect hepatocellular carcinoma. This systematic review opens the door to Bioinformatics to discover novel cancer biomarkers that will help for early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Identifying non-invasive and cost-effective biomarkers for early detection and personalized treatment of HCC will be one of the most promising fields of biomarker research. Find an effective, reliable tool for early diagnosis of HCC to increase the number of patients who are appropriate for therapeutic treatment will play a pivotal role in improving HCC patients’ prognosis. The traditional approaches to identify genomic alternations suffered from several inherent disadvantages, Next generation DNA sequence promises to revolutionize cancer research, diagnosis and therapy.

Hepatic cancer starts from liver cells and damage liver tissue. Liver cancer associated with tumors in the liver or on the liver. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is very common form, which start in specific type of cells which is called hepatocyte in the world about a third half deaths are occur due to the HCC that is way it is called forth most common cancer in throughout the world. Patients who are associated with tumor their survival chances are minimum due to poor diagnosis.

By knowing the natural history of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is noted that this diseases is occurred due to the varieties of tumors. This tumor grows due to the different factors in the same cancers patients. Liver cancer also causes by distinct cell lines in cancer patients.

It is found Hepatocellular carcinoma, viral hepatitis, liver injury as well as many other causes leads to liver damage.  Liver damage, as in the forms of hepatocyte carcinoma, viral hepatitis, acute hepatotoxicity or chronic hepatic injury, is frequently encountered in the practice of medicine. Accumulating knowledge in this field led to the development of a panel of protein-based blood biomarkers, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, total protein and albumin.

Of these biomarkers, the blood ALT levels are the benchmark for liver function in clinical practice. Although liver malfunction is a common cause of elevated blood ALT levels, other factors influencing this biomarker cannot ignore. These effects occur mainly due to its extensive distribution in extrahepatic tissues, such as kidney, heart and skeletal muscle, which compromises its specificity in clinical practice. For example, patients with burns or muscle inflammation also show elevated blood ALT levels, and approximately one-third of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients have a normal ALT reading in the blood.

Distinct from the distribution profile of ALT, a few liver-specific microRNAs (miRNAs), such as miR-122, have recently been characterized.

Liver Enzyme

Liver diseases was an important health issue. Severe liver disease could lead to persistent inflammation and necrosis. The 2 primary adverse outcomes of this chronic phase was cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, both of which could cause liver-related death. The main etiology of many liver diseases was either a viral infection or alcohol abuse. The simultaneous existence of other factors, such as infection by more than 1 virus or exposure to toxic chemicals, might exacerbate the liver disease.

The enzymatic activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in blood was the most widely used biochemical markers for hepatocellular damage; however, serum ALT and AST activities was known to be increased in some other clinical disorders besides liver disease. Additionally, these 2 biomarkers did not always correlate well with histo morphologic data in clinical application. Studies had attempted to identify a more specific and reliable marker of liver injury to supplement the information provided by ALT or AST activity.

However, progress had been slow and had not led to the development of any markers that are better than ALT or AST. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) was an emerging class of  highly conserved, noncoding small RNAs that function by regulated the activity of microRNA targets and there by played important roles in a wide range of physiological and pathologic processes . Some miRNAs were produced in cell- or tissue-specific manners. Consequently, miRNA changed within a tissue type might correlate with certain disease states.

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