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Difference between Oogenesis and Spermatogenesis

Oogenesis-vs-Spermatogenesis

Every human body was first a single zygote formed, a cell produced through sperm and an egg. The cycle where male and female germs are produced is called Gametogenesis. These sperms and eggs are the males’ and females’ reproductive cells, also responsible for fertilization. After fertilization, the zygote grows, disintegrates, and develops into different tissues and further organs, transforming into an entire human. The sustenance of any animal depends on its reproductive ability. So, it all relies on the process and whether the newborn would be a male or a female. Hence, it’s essential to understand the primary cells, sperms, and eggs. That is why we presented this article to differentiate you between Oogenesis and Spermatogenesis.

Gametogenesis for sperm formation is known as Spermatogenesis. On the contrary, the process for egg (ova) formation is called Oogenesis. Oogenesis is the process by which female (ova) gametes are formed. The meiosis process in female gametes is distinct from that of males, comprising four haploid gametes from a single diploid cell.

In Spermatogenesis, spermatozoa develop in the seminiferous tubules of the testis from germ cells. In addition, it is a complex process involving the division of mitotic cells and starts at puberty to continue for the rest of a male’s life. Both gametes are haploid cells that carry 23 unpaired chromosomes (n), half the human genetic makeup.

Comparison Table between Oogenesis and Spermatogenesis

Basis of ComparisonOogenesisSpermatogenesis
DescriptionFormation of
female eggs
Sperm formation
(masculine gametes)
OriginDevelops from the
germinal epithelium
Emerges from
seminiferous tubules
No. of Gametes ProducedA single eggFour sperms
Food ReservePlenty of foodLittle food amount
Division ProductOne oogonium alone
produces oocytes.
All spermatogonia break up
to form spermatozoa.
Cell DifferentiationNot present.Present
NucleusIn uncondensed formUndergoes condensation.
Meiosis-II
Products
One ovum and
one polar body
Two spermatids
ReproductionOotids engage in the
reproduction cycle
The spermatids convert to
sperm to held reproduction.
SizeEggs are greater
in size than oocytes
Sperm is smaller
than spermatozoa

Know More about Oogenesis

Oogenesis is the formation of female embryos. This process occurs within the ovary in females, where the oogonium develops from the germinal epithelium surrounding the ovary. Furthermore, this cycle is pretty discontinuous and takes a duration of a few days to even years. Oogenesis has two divisions of maturation, with the first one completed in the ovaries, while the second takes place outside the cell after fertilization.

When an oogonium develops from the germinal layer, it undergoes mitosis to transform into a primary oocyte (2n). This oogonium has a self-renewing capacity too. The primary oocyte takes Meiosis-I into account and differentiates into the secondary oocyte and one polar body (n). If the female did not reach puberty, the process would stick to the diplotene stage till the woman reaches puberty to release eggs. In other words, the secondary oocytes involve Meiosis-II to reach the metaphase and finally form ootids. Eventually, the formed ootid continues fertilization to produce a large, non-motile ovum that engages a sperm to produce a zygote. It also produces a second polar body.

Besides, unlike the male gametes that continuously produce from puberty onwards, female gametes start producing before birth but mature when the woman hits puberty.

Know More about Spermatogenesis

On the other hand, spermatogenesis is simply the formation of sperms. This process takes place inside the male On the other hand, spermatogenesis is simply the formation of sperms. This process takes place inside the male testis. The germinal epithelial lining of a seminiferous tubule produces a spermatogonium. It’s again a diploid stem cell, having the potential to renew itself. Besides, the process continues and finishes in around 74 days. When this spermatogonium undergoes mitosis, it turns to the primary spermatocytes through a distinct process called spermatocytogenesis. These primary cells are responsible for producing two secondary spermatocytes through Meiosis-I. The formed secondary cells further undergo Meiosis-II to produce spermatids, connecting through the lumen.

Spermatids are non-flagellated, round cells that cannot take part in fertilization. Hence, they continue to mature from the haploid and motile spermatozoa/sperms. This process is also termed Spermiogenesis. Moreover, the sperms are condensed, thread-like structures whose growth period is relatively shorter.

Oogenesis Vs Spermatogenesis

Let’s have a detailed overview of the differences between oogenesis and spermatogenesis.

Production & Location

Oogenesis

When an oogonium undergoes the splitting cycle, it produces eggs through the process called oogenesis. It takes place inside the ovaries except for the last stage, which occurs in the oviduct.

Spermatogenesis

On the contrary, the origination of sperm from spermatogonia takes place through a process called spermatogenesis. It always occurs inside the male testis.

Nature of Continuity

Oogenesis

This process begins even before a female is born, but the maturation starts at puberty. Only a single ovum (egg) produces every month till the menstrual cycle lasts.

Spermatogenesis

In contrast, spermatogenesis is a continuous process that only stops at death.

Number & Size of Gametes

Oogenesis

Only a single ovum is produced from one oocyte, which is bigger than that.

Spermatogenesis

On the other hand, a spermatocyte forms four spermatids, smaller in size than the parent cell.

Role of Germinal Epithelial Lining

Oogenesis

This particular layer produces oogonium, which has to continue the gamete formation process.

Spermatogenesis

In contrast, spermatogonia develop from this layer of the seminiferous tubules.

Division of Cells

Oogenesis

The cell divides only when there is time to produce an egg, one in a month.

Spermatogenesis

On the other hand, cell division continues all the time with the help of meiosis I and II.

Growth Phase

Oogenesis

It has a prolonged growth phase in oogonium.

Spermatogenesis

On the contrary, it has a relatively shorter growth phase in spermatogonia.

Motility

Oogenesis

The process ends up at non-motile gametes, also called eggs.

Spermatogenesis

On the other hand, this process ends up at the motile gametes (sperms).

Preservation of Food

Oogenesis

An ovum consists of a large amount of food and bio-chemicals.

Spermatogenesis

In contrast, sperms do not reserve a sufficient food quantity.

Conclusion

Both the terminologies are hence entirely different from each other. Oogenesis always takes place in females, whereas spermatogenesis arises in males. Despite being dissimilar, both oogenesis and spermatogenesis undergo three significant phases of life, multiplication, maturation, and differentiation. But the good part is that both form gametes that are utilized in fertilization to form a zygote.

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