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Biology

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There is a major group of animals which are called bilaterally symmetrical animals due to the very fact of their bilateral body symmetry. The bilateral symmetry refers to an animal’s body’s such a shape that a plane passing through the body divides it into two halves that are mirror images of each other. The bilateral animals can be divided into two major groups named protostomes and deuterostomes referring to the respective events of protostomy and…

Algae (singular alga) constitutes a group of simple non-flowering plants which lack true stems, leaves, roots and vascular bundles. They are mostly aquatic in nature and their typical examples include seaweeds. However, many types of algae exist which are unicellular in nature. Just like other plants, they also contain chlorophyll in their cells. Fungi (singular fungus) is a group of eukaryotic organisms that have been classified as a separate kingdom ‘fungi’ separate from other forms…

Angiosperms Angiosperms are a large group of seed producing flowering plants characterized by the enclosure of the seeds within the female reproductive organ of the flower known as carpel. Typical examples include grasses, herbs, shrubs and most of the trees. Angiosperms constitute the largest and probably the most diverse group within the plant kingdom having approximately 300,000 species worldwide. They also represent about 80 percent of all the green plants present on earth. Gymnosperms Gymnosperms…

Lipids are hydrocarbon molecules constituting an essential part of living systems by serving as the building blocks of their structure and function. In biological and biochemical terms, the individual molecules of lipids contain both polar and non-polar constituents in them, making them almost entirely soluble in non-polar solvents while partially soluble in polar solvents (forming micelles). Typical examples of lipids are: oils (unsaturated lipids / having lesser hydrogens in their hydrocarbon chains), fats (saturated lipids…

Osmolarity and osmolality are different ways of representing the concentration of a solute in a solution. Defining individually, osmolarity denotes the number of solute particles in one liter of the solvent, just like the molar concentrations. On the other hand, osmolality refers to an amount of solute particles as per one kilogram of the solvent i.e., the number of particles/weight of the solvent. Let us now try to tackle and understand some major differences between…

In its most archetypical definition, compounds having carbon atom as their central element or backbone in association with various other non-metal elements are known as organic compounds. The carbon atoms are linked with other atoms through covalent bonds and most common elements forming associations with carbon backbone include hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. There are few exceptions of carbon-containing compounds which are not classified in the category of organic compounds. These examples of these include cyanides…