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The technique of column chromatography can be defined in two ways in accordance with the field of science in which it is being utilized – Chemistry and Biology. When applied in chemistry, it is used to separate one or sometimes more chemical compounds from a mixture dissolved in an appropriate solvent. Whereas in biology, it most often is employed to separate a biological compound such as nucleic acids or Proteins from a mixture (also dissolved…

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a separation technique for a mixture of non-volatile compounds monitored by their rate of movement on a thin layer of adsorbent coated a plate or sheet. There are different types of sheets used in TLC, of which most common are plastic, glass, and aluminum foil while the most common types of coatings (absorbent materials) used are silica gel, cellulose, and aluminum oxide. The adsorbent layer is termed as a stationary phase…

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is the separation of non-volatile compounds from a mixture utilizing a stationary adsorbent phase coated on the surface of a plate and a mobile phase which carries out the separation process. TLC fosters a wide range of applications ranging in fields from biological research, organic chemistry, pharmaceutical analysis to food and cosmetic industries. Let us have an in-depth look at them for better comprehension. Traditional Medicine Many countries around the world serve…

Ion exchange chromatography alias ion chromatography is an analytical technique used frequently for the separation and identification of the ionic compounds. It is a process of the separation of ionic and polar compounds based on their interaction with another ionic substance typically known as ion exchanger. Not only for ionic solutions, but it also can be used for the separation of any type of charged molecule e.g., amino acids, nucleic acids and proteins. There are…

The technique of the separation of a mixture of compounds into its individual components is known as chromatography. When talking about the biochemical mixtures or compounds, a modified chromatographic technique is used known as affinity chromatography. In the most basic definition, affinity chromatography depends on the interaction of one biomolecule with another (hence the name affinity) and hence utilized this interaction to carry out the separation of the molecules. The types of molecular interactions on…

Pairwise sequence alignment is the alignment of sequences. Pairwise alignment does not mean the alignment of two sequences it may be more than between two sequences. It gives the higher similarity regions and least regions of differences. For example, there are two sequences: Sequence A: CGGATCAT Sequence B: CTTAACT An alignment of A and B: CGGATCA- – T sequence A C – – – TTAACT sequence B There are three types of pairwise sequence alignment…