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A chemical bond is the physical phenomenon and interaction of chemical substances that are held together by the attraction of atoms to each other. This association of atoms helps for the formation of molecules, ions, crystals, etc. via sharing, as well as exchanging, of electrons -or electrostatic forces. There are different types of chemical bonding including Covalent bonds, ionic bonds, metallic bonds, hydrogen bonds, etc. Covalent and ionic bonds are the main cases of chemical bonds. Covalent bonds It is also…

Water is called the universal solvent that is essential for all organisms to survive. It keeps the living organism hydrated. Water is colorless, odorless, transparent, tasteless exist gaseous, liquid, and solid states. It is used for household purposes, cooking, sanitation, industrial purposes, food preservation, and for many other purposes. Water contains different minerals such as magnesium calcium, sodium, etc. It looks to be the same when you see water with the naked eye, but there…

X-rays are electromagnetic radiation that penetrates structures differently within the body and creates images of such structures on a photographic film or a fluorescent screen. Such pictures are considered x-rays diagnostic. Diagnostic x rays are useful for identifying body abnormalities. X- Rays are a painless, non-invasive way of helping to diagnose problems like broken bones, cancers, dental decay, and foreign bodies. X-rays easily move through the air and soft tissues of the body. They are…

Phagocytosis and pinocytosis are the primary types of endocytosis, a cellular process in which cells absorb extracellular material by invagination of the cell membranes. Both are the active process and requires energy (ATP) as adenosine triphosphate for the uptake of materials. Endocytosis uses to transfer material from outside the cell to intracellular spaces. In mammalian cells, it is regulated by the alternation in the function and composition of the plasma membrane. Endocytosis basically regulates diverse…

Serum and plasma both are parts of blood. These are widely used in laboratories for performing different types of tests. Blood is the main part of the human body and blood tests help in collecting information about different illnesses as it is a more reliable method. Serum is the component of blood plasma and acts as a circulating carrier that helps in the transportation of the fatty acids and hormone (Thyroid hormone) Plasma is the…

Endotoxin is a type of toxic substance or a pyrogen released by the bacteria which is located inside the bacterial cell. Endotoxins are also components of the cell walls of the gram-negative bacteria. The most common examples of gram-negative bacteria include E. coli and K. pneumonia whereas that of endotoxin is lipopolysaccharide alias LPS. Exotoxins are bacterial toxins that are either secreted by the bacteria or are released upon their death similar to endotoxins. The…

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