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What is diffusion? The movement of elements from a higher concentration to a lower concentration region is called diffusion. This process is “Passive,” and it needs no energy; the gradient is more than enough to drive the process. There are two types of diffusion processes. They are Simple Diffusion and Facilitated Diffusion. What is Simple Diffusion? Simple diffusion is a type of passive transport of molecules which, as the name suggests, is merely unassisted by…

FiO2 stands for a fraction of inspired oxygen. It is the volumetric or molar fraction of oxygen in inhaled gas. When patients experience difficulty in breathing, they are given oxygen-enriched air. This air has higher FiO2 than natural air. There is 21% oxygen in natural air, and it means FiO2 of 0.21. The oxygen-enriched air has higher FiO2 up to 1.00 (100% oxygen). But usually, it’s kept below 0.5, to avoid the toxicity of oxygen,…

Applied chemistry is the application of the theories and principles of chemistry to practical purposes and for understanding basic chemical properties of materials and for producing new materials. In simple words, applied chemistry is applying knowledge to modify things more accurately. The role of applied chemistry in environmental problems and its contribution to developing new materials increases the interest of scientists in these days Pure Chemistry or chemistry is different from the applied chemistry Both…

To understand this, we first need an overview of the basic theory of the structure of the atom , Conduction of electricity, conductors, and factors. Atom is composed of three particles proton, neutron and electron.Electron is smallest particle of the three and is revolve around the nucleus, which contain proton and neutron. Metal has three energy bands that is stated in band theory: valance band, band gap and conduction band. When an electron gets enough…

The history of microscopes is centuries old. Roman scientists used “burning glasses” in their scripts. But it wasn’t until the late 1300’s that the earliest microscope was made. A simple tube with two lenses placed at opposite ends was used for magnifying. This tube later gave birth to the modern microscope. August Kohler has the credit of inventing uniform microscope illumination. This made photography of the specimen possible. Ernst Leitz came up with a way…

We hear different words for hygienic water such as distilled water, soft water or purified water. But a question arises, which water is safe to drink? With the increasing risk of water contamination, many of the different ways have been introduced to clean water deeply. One of them is distillation. Many of the people get confused between distilled water and soft water. Sometimes, they take these as interchangeable terms. It is also confusing which water…

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