No doubt, ionic and covalent bonds are different according to bonding formation but they are similar in many ways. First of all, it is a must to know about what is an ionic and covalent bond?
What is an ionic bond?
Ionic bond forms when two opposite charged ions come near to each other. Both ions attract each other and hence this attraction results in the loss and getting the electrons from the outermost shell to complete the octet. Octet means having the 8 electrons in the outermost shell.
Some ions get positive and some get a negative charge. Ions that lose electrons get positive charge and have more protons than electrons. Negatively charged ions gain electrons instead of losing and they have more electrons than the protons. In an ionic bond, complete loss or gain of electrons held between the ions.
What is a covalent bond?
The covalent bond is the sharing of electrons between the atoms and has the complete valance shell. Valency of the covalent bond tells the needed of electrons.
Similarities between ionic and covalent bond:
The following are the similarities between the ionic and covalent bonds.
- Both Ionic and covalent bond complete their outermost shell with 8 electrons. In other words, a complete octet you can said they follow octet rule.
- Both ionic and covalent bonds have the same bonding method techniques. As the two atoms come close to each other, the nuclei of both atoms attract to each other. The bond will have the high covalent character if the electrons’ attractions of the neighboring atoms and the nuclei of bonded atom are the same. When the attraction becomes more polarized, the bond consider to have an ionic character.
- Ions are formed by the electrostatic force of attraction in both ionic and covalent bonds. In the case of ions, anion and cation are positive and negative charge formed by losing or gaining the electrons. While in covalent bond, electrons in valance shell shared directly between the atoms.
- Both bonds give stability to the bonded atoms than individually and in both electrons of valance shell take part while making bond.
- The molecules that are formed from the ionic and covalent bonds are neutral. This is because, in an ionic bond, two opposite charges cancel each other while in a covalent bond, neutral components shared the pair of electrons.
- Ionic and covalent, both are the exothermic process. When two elements make bond (ionic or covalent) lower their potential energy. During this reaction, energy is released out in the form of heat.
- Both ionic and covalent bonds shared the fixed quantities during bond formation. In an ionic bond, the excessive charge is found on the elements. A fixed amount of ions that join together to make the compound, depends on this excessive charge on the ions. In a covalent bond, elements shared the fixed amount of electrons that they needed to complete their valance shell.
- Both show the regular pattern and structure in a solid or crystalline state.
- When both compounds face the right temperature and pressure, they changed their shape physically