If you’re among people looking for the difference between autosomes and sex chromosomes, know that it’s the right platform! Living organisms can be multicellular or unicellular, but in either case, they rely on their cellular properties. A cell is the central part of a living body containing different organelles. All organelles are specified in their functioning, so does a nucleus, which performs a primary role.
The nucleus appears with an essential genetic material called a chromosome, which follows the shrinking of chromatin. There is a total of 46 chromosomes in a human body, or you can call it a pair of 23. Two of the 46 chromosomes are sex chromosomes, whereas the rest are autosomes. Let us look into the article below to grab detailed differences between the two.
|Basis of Comparison||Autosomes||Sex Chromosomes|
|Key Function||Helps in determining the somatic characteristics of a body.||Involved in determining the sex-linked traits of a body.|
|Nature of Chromosomes||Homologous||Partially homologous|
|Size of Chromosomal Pairs||Both arms are of equal length||Y chromosome is shorter than X chromosome|
|Total Pairs in a Genome||22 pairs||1 pair|
|Location of Centromere||The position is fixed in all autosomes||The position may vary|
|Similarity||Identical autosomes present in both males and females||The chromosomal size, shape, and characteristics may vary as per the gender|
|Labelling||These are labelled in numeric||These are presented as XY, ZO, and XO|
Autosomes – Brief Explanation
All chromosomes other than sex chromosomes are autosomes that look after a body’s somatic characteristics. Autosomes are classified as chromosomes 1, 2, and so on, as per their appearances, sizes, and similar properties. These fixed pairs of autosomes are linked to regulating the genetic information of a body. It means whatever characteristics an offspring gets from its parents are due to the autosomes.
Each of the autosomal pair is of equal length that even the centromere is settled at a set position. When a cell is about to divide during mitosis, each chromosome duplicates to segregate in the daughter cells. Therefore, all these cells get equal chromosomal pairs having sufficient genetic material.
Sex Chromosomes – Brief Explanation
The two distinguishing chromosomes that take part in deciding the gender of a child are called sex chromosomes. These chromosomes are largely classified as X and Y. A female possesses two X chromosomes, while a male has a combination of both X and Y.
There are usually two arms of a chromosome. All the Y chromosomes contain one short and the other long arm. On the other hand, the X is quite similar to the autosomal chromosome. That is why there are more than 300 genes in an X chromosome while the other shows up with a few of them being smaller in size.
Find Out the Differences Between Autosomes and Sex Chromosomes
All those chromosomes playing a vital role in determining the physical properties of a human are called autosomes.
These are also called Allosomes. Sex Chromosomes or Allosomes fundamentally play a part in deciding the sex characteristics in a body.
Maximum Chromosomes in Our Genome
These chromosomes are present in the majority of a genome as they determine the characteristics of all parts of a human body.
These sex-linked chromosomes are very few in a genome.
Scientists have labeled autosomes as 1, 2, 3, and so on up till 22.
These chromosomes are identified as XY, XO, ZO, and ZW.
Nature of Chromosomes
The 22 pairs or 44 autosomal chromosomes are homologous by nature.
These sex chromosomes, XY and XX, are non-homologous and homologous, respectively.
Type of Inheritance
These chromosomes function on the principle of Mendel’s Law of inheritance. It means that autosomal cells act according to dominant and recessive alleles.
There is no role of Mendelian inheritance seen in sex chromosomes. It means that these cells can involve the characteristics of more than one gene.
Position of Centromere
Centromeres are fixed at a position in autosomes.
Allosomes have non-identical centromeres; hence they can locate anywhere, depending upon the need.
Number of Genes Present
In autosomes, the number of genes can differ and range from 200 to even 2000.
There are a limited number of genes in sex chromosomes, such that X has almost 300 genes and Y consist of a few.
As we concluded the difference between autosomes and sex chromosomes, their functioning is all clear now. There is no enough involvement of sex chromosomes in processes like selection, mutation, etc., due to being heteromorphic. Whereas the autosomes equally divide into daughter cells at the time of mitosis, so presents a chief role in evolutionary methods. Either its autosomes or sex chromosomes both act to transfer the hereditary material in the offspring.