If you’re among people looking for the difference between autosomes and sex chromosomes, know that it’s the right platform! Living organisms can be multicellular or unicellular, but in either case, they rely on their cellular properties. A cell is the central part of a living body containing different organelles. All organelles are specified in their functioning, so does a nucleus, which performs a primary role.

The nucleus appears with an essential genetic material called a chromosome, which follows the shrinking of chromatin. There is a total of 46 chromosomes in a human body, or you can call it a pair of 23. Two of the 46 chromosomes are sex chromosomes, whereas the rest are autosomes. Let us look into the article below to grab detailed differences between the two.

Comparison Chart

Basis of ComparisonAutosomesSex Chromosomes
Key FunctionHelps in determining the somatic characteristics of a body.Involved in determining the sex-linked traits of a body.
Nature of ChromosomesHomologousPartially homologous
Size of Chromosomal PairsBoth arms are of equal lengthY chromosome is shorter than X chromosome
Total Pairs in a Genome22 pairs1 pair
Location of CentromereThe position is fixed in all autosomesThe position may vary
SimilarityIdentical autosomes present in both males and femalesThe chromosomal size, shape, and characteristics may vary as per the gender
LabellingThese are labelled in numericThese are presented as XY, ZO, and XO

Autosomes – Brief Explanation

All chromosomes other than sex chromosomes are autosomes that look after a body’s somatic characteristics. Autosomes are classified as chromosomes 1, 2, and so on, as per their appearances, sizes, and similar properties. These fixed pairs of autosomes are linked to regulating the genetic information of a body. It means whatever characteristics an offspring gets from its parents are due to the autosomes.

Each of the autosomal pair is of equal length that even the centromere is settled at a set position. When a cell is about to divide during mitosis, each chromosome duplicates to segregate in the daughter cells. Therefore, all these cells get equal chromosomal pairs having sufficient genetic material.

Sex Chromosomes – Brief Explanation

The two distinguishing chromosomes that take part in deciding the gender of a child are called sex chromosomes. These chromosomes are largely classified as X and Y. A female possesses two X chromosomes, while a male has a combination of both X and Y.

There are usually two arms of a chromosome. All the Y chromosomes contain one short and the other long arm. On the other hand, the X is quite similar to the autosomal chromosome. That is why there are more than 300 genes in an X chromosome while the other shows up with a few of them being smaller in size.

Find Out the Differences Between Autosomes and Sex Chromosomes

Definition

Autosomes

All those chromosomes playing a vital role in determining the physical properties of a human are called autosomes.

Sex Chromosomes

These are also called Allosomes. Sex Chromosomes or Allosomes fundamentally play a part in deciding the sex characteristics in a body.

Maximum Chromosomes in Our Genome

Autosomes

These chromosomes are present in the majority of a genome as they determine the characteristics of all parts of a human body.

Sex Chromosomes

These sex-linked chromosomes are very few in a genome.

Labeled As

Autosomes

Scientists have labeled autosomes as 1, 2, 3, and so on up till 22.

Sex Chromosomes

These chromosomes are identified as XY, XO, ZO, and ZW.

Nature of Chromosomes

Autosomes

The 22 pairs or 44 autosomal chromosomes are homologous by nature.

Sex Chromosomes

These sex chromosomes, XY and XX, are non-homologous and homologous, respectively.

Type of Inheritance

Autosomes

These chromosomes function on the principle of Mendel’s Law of inheritance. It means that autosomal cells act according to dominant and recessive alleles.

Sex Chromosomes

There is no role of Mendelian inheritance seen in sex chromosomes. It means that these cells can involve the characteristics of more than one gene.

Position of Centromere

Autosomes

Centromeres are fixed at a position in autosomes.

Sex Chromosomes

Allosomes have non-identical centromeres; hence they can locate anywhere, depending upon the need.

Number of Genes Present

Autosomes

In autosomes, the number of genes can differ and range from 200 to even 2000.

Sex Chromosomes

There are a limited number of genes in sex chromosomes, such that X has almost 300 genes and Y consist of a few.

Conclusion

As we concluded the difference between autosomes and sex chromosomes, their functioning is all clear now. There is no enough involvement of sex chromosomes in processes like selection, mutation, etc., due to being heteromorphic. Whereas the autosomes equally divide into daughter cells at the time of mitosis, so presents a chief role in evolutionary methods. Either its autosomes or sex chromosomes both act to transfer the hereditary material in the offspring.

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