10 Important Branches of Biochemistry

Biochemistry is the branch of science in which we study about the structure and chemical composition of living organisms like plants, human being, animal and microorganism. In sciences, Biochemistry is a common field to study. For research and career, students like to choose this subject. 10 important Branches are studied in Biochemistry. These are being studies worldwide for various professions that will be discussed in this article.

In Medical Sciences, this subject is also studied having closely resembled with Molecular Biology and Genetics. These are studies as a sub-area of Biochemistry. The student also studies four major classes of Molecules like Nucleic acid, Lipid, Carbohydrates, and Protein. These are called Biomolecules. In agriculture, medical and research its applications are found.

Primary Branches of Biochemistry

Like other subjects, Biochemistry is a vast field of study covered hundreds of living organism including blood tests, human body functions, plant growing, your diet, genetic systems, DNA, RNA, Cell functions, generation and so on. General Biochemistry is known as the study of structure & chemical functions of living things but in detailed all these are divided into different Biochemistry Branches.

  • Immunology
  • Animal biochemistry
  • Enzymology
  • Plant biochemistry
  • Cell biology
  • Metabolism
  • Molecular biology
  • Genetics


The study of the immune system in a living organism is called immunology. For living organism Immune system has great importance. As immunology studied in Branch of Biology. The immune system protects from disease and fights against viruses. Helps to protect the Human body from various diseases like HIV, Cancer, Dengue, Malaria and many other. if any person suffers from immune disease should go to immunology doctors.

The strong immune system of human will result in high survival rate. If any germ attacks on bod; it fight against germs. Defense cell can kill the germ or die that totally depends upon the strong or weak system. The immune system can be strengthened with the help of food, medication and physical exercises. Antibodies boost up immune system against invaders. Invaders may be a bacteria, virus, and foreign partials.

The blood test is performed for immunology testing as well as antigen and antibodies test is performed.


Animal Biochemistry

Relationship of animals with the environment is essential for animal studies.  In the animal, Biochemistry studies the chemical composition and chemical reaction that occurs in the animal body. It covers studying animal metabolism, diseases, functions of the cell and further generation. Cloning is considered to study in Animal Biochemistry because the first animal named Dolly (sheep) has been successfully cloned in 1995.


Study of the enzyme is called enzymology. It discusses about kinetics, structure as well as function. Enzyme controls the rate of reaction. It functions as to act on the substrate and convert into the product. Enzymes are specific in its nature & increase rate of reaction by lowering activation energy.

The enzyme is not involved in a reaction but it just controls the reaction rate.

Enzyme classification is divided into 6 different categories and they could be reused. One type of Enzyme is used for one single reaction could not be used for other reaction. If want to used both reaction must having same reactant as well as a catalyst. If the catalyst is changed enzyme used will also change.

Plant Biochemistry

Defined as the study of structure, function and chemical reaction in the plant is called plant biochemistry. In plant Biochemistry, its energy system, defense system, cycles, its light and dark reactions are studied. How Plants participate in Photosynthesis. In Photosynthesis plant used Light energy and convert into chemical energy and cycle is started. They use sunlight to produce glucose from carbon dioxide and water.

Cell Biology

Cell biology deals with the structure and function of the cell. The cell is the basic unit of life. Concerned with a life cycle, physiological properties, and signaling pathway. One of the functions of the cell to maintain cycles like the Krebs cycle, citric acid cycle. The cell consists of a cytoplasm covered with the cell wall. Cytoplasm contains Mitochondria, Golgi bodies, vacuoles, Ribosomes, smooth and Ruf endoplasmic reticulum and many more. Human cells structure is different from animals and plants. As human cell contained a well-defined nucleus, cell membrane and cell wall but animal and plant cell do not have.

Mitochondria are called the powerhouse of the cell. Cell play structure and function role. For life, the cell has great importance. Organisms are divided into unicellular and multicellular. Unicellular mean organism consist of a single cell and multicellular contained more than one cells.


The main purpose of metabolism is converted food into energy to run the chemical procedure in the body. All chemical reaction which involves maintaining life in a living organism is called metabolism. Metabolism divided into 2 categories.

Catabolism and Anabolism.

Catabolism is the breakdown of the molecule to release energy. Large molecule breakdown into the small molecule.

For example formation amino acids from proteins, glycogen becoming glucose and TAG becoming fatty acid.

Anabolism is also a metabolic process. The building of components in the cell and its process are studied. The body needs different types of molecules and building of these molecules is called Anabolism.

For example, poly peptide, glycogen and TAG.

Molecular Biology

Deals with structure and function of macromolecules that essential for life Like proteins, nucleic acid.

Molecular biology is the study of biology on a molecular level including the structure, function, and makeup of biologically important molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins. The field of molecular biology involves many other areas of biology such as biochemistry and genetics. [ ref ]

Central dogma is a basic study of molecular biology. In central dogma 2 steps are involved in transcription and translation. It Gives information about how gene flows into protein. Transcription is the synthesis of RNA from DNA and translation is the formation of protein from RNA

Many techniques are used in molecular Biology like Polymerase chain reaction PCR, cloning, Southern blotting, northern blotting, western blotting, eastern blotting, Gel electrophoresis, and Microarrays etc.


Genetics is the study of genes, variation, and heredity information of living organisms. Also, study the transformation of genes parents to offsprings. Heredity means physical and mental characteristic of an individual passing from one generation to another.

For example, it is studied that he is heightened because his father or mother is heightened or he has brown eyes because one of the parents has brown eyes.

These are some genes which child took from one of the parents. Some factors are physical like hair, skin color, eye color, and height etc but when discussed about some genetic diseases like diabetes, Anemia, high blood pressure and many other diseases. These diseases usually come from generation to generation.

Secondary Biochemistry Branches

These branches are related to Medical Biochemistry.

Blood Biochemistry

In Blood Biochemistry structure and function of blood in living organisms are studied.  Blood is a fluid transported oxygen into the body and excretes out carbon dioxide. Blood transport oxygen to another part of body and heart. Blood act as tissue as well as fluid. It is also studied how the defense system of a body fight against the invader.

Living organism system cannot accept foreign particles in the body. Leukocytes are white blood cell act as a defense system and fight against infections. production point is bone marrow and circulates in the blood. White blood cell fight against invaders. Lymphocytes, Granulocytes, and monocytes are white blood cell and these all collectively made body defense system. Like Lymphocytes produces antibodies against the antigen.

Medical Biochemistry

In medical biochemistry chemical composition and structure of human beings are discussed. It is specified in the medical area. Some Medical students choose Biochemistry as their career.

Why Biochemistry is Important?

Biochemistry is a wild field to study in the search area, Medical field, agriculture, and so many fields. As it has been discussed Biochemistry is the combination of Chemistry and Biology. if the use of Biochemistry discussed in the agriculture field. It helps to control diseases in a field like in the wheat field and rice field.

In the case of pesticide and diseases medicines are used in the field helps to control diseases. Biochemistry used in medical sciences helps to students to understand how chemical procedure occur like a citric acid cycle, Krebs cycle, and many more cycles occurred in the body. Genes, functions of genes, the formation of protein, control of diseases by Genetic engineering, the study of RNA, DNA all are the focus point in the research area.

In Lab Biochemistry diagnose of many diseases like HCV, HBV and many more test are performed. Biochemistry is important in every field of science.

Most important is that a Biochemist can choose many careers. He can choose the career as Teacher, Forensic scientist, Researchers, Lab technologist and in every field of science where Biochemistry is used.

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