Chemistry is the study of structure, composition, and properties of the substance and also deals with chemical reactivity to form new compounds. Atoms, molecules, ions, compound, ionic compounds, complexes all are studied in chemistry. This is a vast area of studies and has many branches.

5 Branches of Chemistry

There are different types of branches but them Chemistry is used everywhere in life. As a chemical reaction occurred in the body. A lot of chemical reaction occurred in the environment on daily basis. It won’t be wrong to state that We are living in Chemical era.

Chemistry also studies in food, pharmacology, industry, agriculture and forensic science. Many other fields are also studied in chemistry but the main and important branches are Five. Each branch has its own scope and career. for example, For lab experiments, Analytical techniques are used.

  • Organic
  • Inorganic
  • Physical
  • Analytical
  • Biochemistry

Organic Chemistry

Deals with the study the structure and properties of the organic compound. This is the study of Hydrogen and carbon and some trances are present like Oxygen, Sulpher and Nitrogen etc. for example, alkene, alkene, and alkyne. Organic compound exists in the form of the mixture and different techniques are used to separate like distillation, solvent extraction Chromatography especially HPLC, Gas chromatography and many other techniques are used for this purpose.

Formation of methane, Ethane, Alkane, Alkene, and Alkyne all are reactions of organic compounds.


Organic compounds have its own typical melting and boiling point. Molecular weight and polarity of molecules indicate its melting and boiling points.

Solid state

Many Properties also indicate its state


Organic compounds are soluble in the Organic solvent like methanol, Ethanol etc. rather than water only those which can ionize can soluble in water. They are not soluble in the inorganic solvent. It depends on polarizability. Polar compounds are soluble in the polar solvent while non-polar in non-polar.


Salt, Sugar, Drinks are common daily life example of organic chemistry.

Aldehyde, Ketones, Aromatic hydrocarbons, Aliphatic Hydrocarbons, synthetic polymers, plastics, and many other compounds are studied in Organic chemistry.

Sub-branches of Organic Chemistry

  • Organometallic Chemistry (the study of Chemical compounds having a bond between carbon and metal)
  • Medicinal Chemistry (the study of synthesis and design of medicinal drugs)
  • Polymer Chemistry (the study of Chemistry of polymer)
  • Nuclear chemistry (Study of Radioactive elements)

Inorganic Chemistry

Inorganic mean in chemistry is also the important branch of Chemistry which is the study of other compounds rather than Carbon and Hydrogen. This is the main difference of inorganic compound with the organic compound. For example, Periodic Table, Transition Elements, S block, d block, f block elements are studied in organic chemistry. 10, 000 inorganic compounds are found in the world.  Acid, Base, Salts and oxides are organic compounds that are studied under inorganic chemistry.

Sub Branches of Inorganic chemistry

  • Solid state chemistry (studied of, structure, properties, and synthesis of solid phase material)
  • Geochemistry (studied of the earth with chemistry)
  • Photochemistry (studied of reaction which is caused by adsorption of U.V)
  • Theoretical chemistry (This chemistry focused on the explanation of physical and chemical observation of atom)
  • Thermochemistry (concerned with chemical reactivity)
  • Nuclear chemistry (studied of the nucleus, its charge, and its reaction)

Physical chemistry

Branch of chemistry deals with the study of the physical properties of molecules and the relationship of atom and molecule in which way they can join together? For example

Physical chemistry is basically blended of physics and chemistry. How a particular molecule is formed by the combination of atom and molecule. When a chemical reaction occurred heat is liberated. This type of reactions is studied in physical chemistry.

5 Some sub-branches of physical chemistry


When chemical reaction occurred heat is liberated studied in thermochemistry


In sunlight, a chemical reaction occurred why it does so? This all is studied in photochemistry.


In electrochemistry, it is studied how atoms, Molecule, and ions participate in electrical current.


Is the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation?  How light is split into its wavelength same like the rainbow color.

Chemical kinetics

Chemical kinetics gives information how reaction proceeds and in which speed. In which time reaction complete into products. What is the half-life of reaction? This all is studied in chemical kinetics.

Analytical Chemistry

Analytical chemistry is the study of chemical characterization is also a very important branch of chemistry. Used the instruments and different methods to identify and quantify matter.  X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry, Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy, Inductively Coupled Plasma – Mass Spectrometry, Ion Chromatography, Gas Chromatography, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, and Electron Probe Microanalysis, Fourier Transform Infrared analysis. These are some techniques which are used in analytical chemistry.

2 Sub-branches of analytical chemistry

Quantitative analysis

Quantitative analysis mostly used in to check the presence and absence of compound and element in the analyte. Mostly flame test and other chemical methods are used to determine the presence of the substance. The chemical test is used in organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry and biochemistry.

There are many methods used in qualitative analysis.

  • Filtration method
  • Sublimation
  • Chromatography
  • Centrifuge
Quantitative analysis

As the name indicates quantitative analysis is the measurement of the quantity of sample in the compound. For example, the amount of carbon, hydrogen, in glucose.

The methods which are used for quantitative analysis, Gravimetric and volumetric methods.

The gravimetric method gives more precise result than volumetric. In the volumetric method, titration is included. For example titration of acid-base, that is neutralization reaction yield salt and water.


In biochemistry study of chemical reaction that proceeds in living organisms. For example, Krebs cycle, citric acid cycle, carbon cycle etc. Biochemistry is also a study of biological molecules like nucleic acid, protein, amino acids, fats, lipids, and enzymes. Biochemistry is important in the study of living organisms. Biochemistry scholars called Biochemist and Biochemist understand and study the biological problems. Biochemistry is further categorized in Biochemistry Branches.

Sana Riaz

Sana has just completed her MPhil in Microbiology. She loves reading books and the latest discoveries in sciences.

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