What is Biology? Biology is the branch of science and also known as science of life. The word Biology is comprised of two Greek words “bios” (life) and “logos” (study), and is defined as the science of life and living organisms. Biological science gives understanding on vast scale, ranging from the molecular mechanisms in cells, classification and behavior of organisms, how species evolve and interact between ecosystems.

Importance of Biology

The survival of mankind is always a one million question for human. For this, Science and Biology helps to identify the issues and ways to resolve them through scientific researches and measures. On earth, there are estimated 8.7 million species out of which only 1.9 million have been discovered till now. Each creation has its own impact on ecosystem. This enables us to make the most of our planet’s natural resources while trying to minimize the impact we have on environment. And enable humans to be more environmental friendly to save Mother Nature.

Biology explains any form of life from the unicellular to the most complex multi-cellular – the human being. Different sub-disciplines of biology primarily focus on human health. It studies the origin of diseases, such as the etiology of cancer, infections, functional problems, and it contrives treatments by using Different techniques.

Biology also play important role in the discovery and production of medicines. It explains the reproduction process in human, animals and plants. It is tells about animal and plants breeding and produce seeds for producing new and best yield of the plants that’s why agriculture is established day by day. Biology also studies those environmental factors that are harmful for humans.

Human Biology focused on organ and organ system, also including ecology, genetics, physiology and anatomy.

Biology as a science helps human life in many ways. We can increase production of food through biology and also combat with disease and can save us environment through biological environment. The advances in the field of biology have resulted in high standard of living in the field of food and health. Production of plants has been increased by improving the varieties and development of high-yield and diseases resistant varieties of plants and animals that are used as food.

Branches of Biology

These are the top branches of Biology.


Anatomy is a greek word , combination of two greek words “ana” and “tome”. “Ana” means “up” and tome means ”cutting”. Information about anatomy gives understanding of health care. The history of anatomy is goes back to two thousand years.

It can be further divided into three fields , human anatomy study of the Human organ,Animals anatomy and Phytotomy means plant anatomy. The Human body anatomy studied in two ways through anatomy i.e., Gross or macroscopic anatomy and Microscopic anatomy.

According to Medical Definition animal and humans body organs observed, Dissect dead living beings and studied in books.

Gross anatomy

In Gross anatomy biological structures are being studied which are visible to naked eye. For this purpose different methods are used such as Endoscopy, MRI, CT scan,angiography, dissection and X-ray.
Persons related to health care profession such as dental and medical students have to do dissection as part of their practical work in gross human anatomy during their studies. Human corpse are being dissected to learn about major body systems of human.

Microscopic anatomy

Histology is another name of microscopic anatomy in which microscopic structures of human animals and plants being studied which cannot be seen by naked eye. The techniques used to study cell and tissue structure are sectioning and stainingand then looking them under an electron or light microscope.

Anatomy Career Scope

Specialized in micro-anatomy are known as Histologist. Histologists analyze tissue samples or biopsies, taken from patients, to diagnose disease in effect of medicine on particular infection. Micro anatomy is a basic study measure in Forensic investigation which helps to explain the reason of unexpected death of a person.
Archeologists collect biological samples from archeological sites and provide useful data about evolution of organisms or ancient history.

Histotechnicians or histotechnologist are specialized persons who prepare slides of affected tissues and add histology stains . These prepared slides then examined by, Medical doctors specialized known as pathologist, in anatomy for analysis.

Anatomy is major field of specialization in most health –care related fields. Paramedics, medical doctors, biological scientists all need training in anatomy.


Biochemistry is defined as biological processes and chemistry of chemical reactions that take place inside an organism. Biochemistry helps to understand biological processes such as growth, reproduction, metabolism, heredity and chemical reaction take place due to these biological processes.

Biochemists study biological molecules such as Proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids. It is the job of biochemist to study biological molecules structure , physical and chemical properties, their interaction with enzymes and their effect on the process of metabolism and the molecular basis of the action of genes. Genetics, Enzymology, Immunology, Cell Biology, Plant Biochemistry Micro and Macro molecules like Proteins, Enzymes, DNA, RNA are studied in Biochemistry Course.

The basic domain of biochemist is research and analysis of the information collected through different research tools and techniques. Basic techniques which are involved are PCR, Chromatography, Gel electropherosis etc.

Biochemistry Degree, Career and scope

After earning master degree in Biochemistry, one can specialized in molecular biology, genetics, Bioinformatics, Development and disease, Plant biology. Public and private sectors like medical agriculture, medical instrument companies, research companies and laboratories, chemical manufacturing companies has specific jobs for biochemists. Cancer research institutes, industrial laboratories, public health laboratories has specialized jobs for biochemist graduates under job profiles like biotechnologists, research scientists, research associates, Microbiologist, Pharmacologist, laboratory technician.


Botany is the branch of Biology which deals with the scientific study of plant structure, development, life cycle of plants and their effect on environment. Human from the beginning is interested in plants, because of their useful and beneficial effect on environment and life of mankind. Botany includes study of bacteria to algae, fungi to lichens, mosses to ferns, conifers to flowering plants. The person who specialized in botany is known as botanist.

Plant kingdom is so vast that it is classified into eight classes and included in Botany course. Each class has millions of species. So botany has many fields for specialization. Some Botanists are interested in the study of interaction of plants with other living organisms and their environment. Other may search to find new species in some specific area or growth of plants under different environmental conditions. Same as some botanists study plants structure as a whole and some study its molecular structure.

Many botanists involve in researches about the genetic makeup of plants, the processes through which plants convert simple chemical compounds into more complex compounds. The result of these researches has improved our plants production, medicine food and fibers. Industrialization has caused pollution to the environment. Environmental protection professionals’ helps to resolve pollution issue with recommendation of such plants which can help reduce pollution in that specific area.

Career Scope Botany

Research and teaching professions are common career options for botany graduates. Following are the specialized area of jobs for advanced botany programs; Taxonomist, Agronomist, Ecologist, Mycologist, plant breeder, horticulturist.

In the field of agriculture, specialized jobs are for botanist in which they do researches on the methods to increase cultivation. In government, education, forest and horticulture departments have jobs for botany degree holders.

Development Biology

Developmental biology is the study of growth and developmental stages of living organisms. In the modern era genetic control of cell growth, differentiation and morphogenesis is the primary focus of research and study of developmental biology.

It also has subfield of study Embryology and gerontology. In Embryology organisms development studied from one cell stage (generally, the zygote)to the end of embryonic stage. And in Growth organism development is studied from birth till death.

Developmental Biology is an important discipline in the life sciences. It studies fertility, causes of infertility, human diseases , disabilities, food sustainability and biological responses to environmental pollution and global warming.

Career Scope in Developmental Biology

Options of Biologist  for career are researcher, cell biologist and professor. Medical, biotechnology or pharmaceutical industries has jobs for developmental biologist graduates. Government departments and public health departments has jobs for researcher and research assistants in labs. Graduate colleges and teaching hospitals have designated posts for developmental biologists professors.


“Zoo” is a Greek word means animals and “logy” means study. Zoology deals with the study of animals structure, genetics, characteristics, classification, behavior, life process, habitat and ecological distribution of animals. Animals are vital part of ecology . Human from prehistoric times interested in studying animals, their life cycle, breeding and impact on environment. Zoology developed at rapid rates. Technology gives tools to explore and study animals from micro level to macro level. Submarines powerful cameras, microscopes and spacecraft helped human to study life of animals under sea as well as in the sky, life of birds.

Zoology is vast discipline which is further sub divided as Ethology, Entomology, Herpetology, Ichtyology, Mammalogy, Ornithology. Zoology includes many major specialties. Some zoologists study a single animal or a single categories of animals . some study anatomy of animals. Classification of zoologists depends on the animals they studied for example mammalogists study mammals, entomologists focus on insects, herpetologists are experts on reptiles and amphibians and ornithologists study birds.

Career Scope in Zoology

After took Degree in Zoology, Zoologist have jobs in teaching department of schools, colleges, universities, health care departments and teaching hospitals. Most zoo keepers are zoologists. Wild animals protection department has specific jobs for zoologist. In Agriculture fields researchers have good job scope.

Research is the primary area of zoologists. But no government funded programs are available for research in the field of zoology.

Cell Biology

important Branch of Biology which is study of Cell makeup, function and structure. Function which is involve in cell. Basic  unit of life is called cell. Cell contained Cytoplasm, Vacuoles, Golgi bodies, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Mitochondria and many more. All life cycle doing their function in cell.

Cell is important for Life. Some organism contain single cell and some contain more than one cell called unicellular and multi cellular respectively.

Wrapping Up

Biology as a vast disciple of science studies living organisms and their interaction with their environment for the betterment of mankind. It is a broad field including many branches and sub-disciplines. Biologists has great career in the field of science and related fields.

Hifza Khan

Hifza is a student of bioinformatics. She is a research student and working on cancer.

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